Here is a short and very incomplete glossary of "karate terms" we use here at Midwest Karate. The translations here represent the way we actually use the Japanese terms rather than true, direct translations. Do not believe that you are learning real Japanese when you learn these terms: they are terms pretty much restricted to the karate dojo.
It is worthwhile to learn most of these terms because you will hear them in nearly every Japanese karate dojo worldwide. You need to know most of these terms for every grading above fourth kyu as the examiner may choose not to translate into English.
General Training Terms:
kamaete: ASSUME A STANCE
kamae: A POSE/ BODY POSTION
gohon kumite: 5 STEP SPARRING
sanbon kumite: 3 STEP SPARRING
kihon ippon kumite: BASIC ONE STEP
jyu ippon kumite: FREE STYLE ONE STEP
jyu kumite: FREE STYLE SPARRING.
waza: A TECHNIQUE
jodan: UPPER LEVEL (think jaw for jodan)
chudan: MIDDLE LEVEL (think chest for chudan)
gedan: LOWER LEVEL (think groin for gedan)